Five thousand years - age of the exactly ancient monuments of settled-agricultural culture, is now known as the limits of Tajikistan. Specifically, to these earliest centers of the civilization of the Bronze Age are stretched the threads of processes of folklore, raise the first monuments of social class in the territory of republic (middle of 1st millennium BC).
A research of settlements and tombs of the epoch of bronze in Tajikistan was achievements in the 1970s, if we do not consider single findings known earlier (Terenojkin, 1948; cf. Litvinskiy 1954). Discoveries in the region of Sogdian (zone of reservoir of Kayrakkum - Litvinskiy, and others, 1962) and in the Valley Beshkent (Mandelstam, 1968), excavations under the management of B. A. Litvinskiy in the lower reaches of the river of Vakhsh and Kyzylsu (1962 - 1964), of work in the Valley Gissar (N. M. Vinogradov and L. T. Pyankov - 1974 - 1977) and in the zone of reservoir Nurek (L. T. Pyankov - 1974) and finally, discovery by A. I. Isakov in 1976 of remains of the enormous settlement of end of 4th - 2nd millennium BC in the locality of Sarazm (in the Valley of Zeravshan, in 15 km to the West from city of Penjikent) - this is the brief enumeration of basic landmarks in the study of the epoch of bronze in the territory of Tajikistan.
The settlement of the epoch of bronze near Sarazm (its area more than 100 ha) is the largest (and unique) monument of settled-agricultural culture of Mejdurec in Central-Asian, which relates the era when the ancients appeared in Egypt and in Mesopotamia, the origin of civilization, in the history of humanity (end of 4th - 2nd millennium BC). Overcoming the definite difficulties, connected with the dating of this monument (especially early stages of its existence), A. I. Isakov, who conducted in Sarazm beginning with 1977 stationary excavations, considered the neolithic monuments of the Valley of Zeravshan as the genetic basis of the culture of Sarazm, especially referring for the neolithic time contacts with the inhabitants of the southeastern regions of Turkmenia and influence of the traditions of the culture of painted ceramics (early layers on excavation 2) on the inhabitants of the settlement of Sarazm. Forms and the ornamentation of ceramic works, axe-shaped, disk-shaped weights and other special features of the material culture of settlement of Sarazm make it possible to compare with the monuments of very distant regions, up to Baluchistan and Seistana. But to determine the place of Sarazm in the territory of other early agricultural cultures of the Middle East is for the time too early yet: researchs of Sarazm continue and bring new remarkable discoveries each year.
Knives, daggers, the tips of copies, axe-shaped and another weapon from the metal, the earthenware and other findings gave very detailed idea about the material culture of Sarazm. The special features of the building of settlement as a whole gradually are explained; divided blocks by streets and alleys, the planning of "standard" dwellings of two-three accommodations and cavity, the existence on the settlement of the buildings of the public designation, whose building testifies about the high level of architectural knowledge and habits of "people of Sarazm". Disk-shaped altars of special device with the hole give the first information about the ideological ideas of the inhabitants of settlement. Thus far best anything is studied the late stage of the life of settlement - first half of 2nd millennium BC, when as show in the find from Sarazm, contacts with the tribes of the steppe manner of the culture of the epoch of bronze were noticeably strengthened.
The wide mastery of the territory of southern Tajikistan by the tribes of the Bronze Age thus far, judging from the investigated monuments, it is possible to carry mainly to the final period of this epoch (middle of 2nd - beginning of 1st millennium BC), but are known the random findings of bronze axes (from Sharshara; on the axes from Sangvora and Arakchina - Zeymali, 1958), which relate to 3rd - to middle of 2nd millennium BC (Litvinskiy, 1961).
For the epoch of bronze in southern Tajikistan is also characteristic the co-existence of two basic cultural-economic zones - cattle-breeding and settled-agricultural (but already of local appearance with the special features of Ancient-Bactorian region).
The basic group of the tombs of cattle-breeding tribes is located in the lower reaches of the river of the right tributaries of Panj - Amu-Darya (tombs of Beshkent, Jarkuli, Makonimor, etc.). The inhabited group of the cattle-breeding tribes of southern Tajikistan, which was united from the point of view of economic activity also in the ecological conditions in the etnogenetical plan (just as on the material culture and the funeral rite), is confidently divided into the culture of Beshkent, which reveals explicit admiration for the cultures of the type of late Sapali and the culture of Vakhsh, which the researchers exclude from the ancient-agricultural center of North Afganistan (Pyankova, 1982, s. 48 - 49). The tribes of steppe area took part in the formation of the cattle-breeding cultures of southern Tajikistan at the end of the epoch of bronze. They related to Andronova culture and the newcomers from the north had the greatest effect on culture of Beshkent.
Tombs of the epoch of bronze with the ceramics of settled-agricultural appearance were investigated in Tajikistan along the northern boundary of Afganistan-Tajikistan (Tandyryul in the western part of the Valley Gissar, Nurek tomb - in 8 km to the east of the Nurek). For the settlement of Teguzak in the region of Dangarin (investigated since 1979 by L. T. Pyankov) - the seasonal settlement, connected with enclosing summer pasturing cattle, it is notable that there was direct combination of two cultural-historical traditions (in one monument): settled-agricultural and steppe.