Period of Kushan in the history of southern Tajikistan - This is the time of the rapid economic and cultural progress, when large irrigation channels (with extent to 100 km) laid, enormous areas were for the first time mastered by farmers. New cities - large and small (walls, which surrounded the fortification of Shakhrinau, for example, had an extent of approximately 7 km, through every 25 m towers were arranged, the thickness of wall was in base - about 3,5 m, height was more than 6 m) were constructed. Numerous rural estates and so on appeared. Of the Valley of southern Tajikistan, populated by previously only small isolated oasis (where short channels were laid), become populous and they are mastered practically completely.

The mass findings are coins of Kushan and characteristic ceramic moulds and other objects of material culture and there are findings of the monuments of documents of Kushan, even the toponymic names (one of the channels in the Valley Vakhsh. It preserved the present name of Karalang, apparently, which ascends to the karalraggo "deputy" of Bactoria). All these clearly testify about the entry of the southern regions of Tajikistan (as the southern regions of adjacent Uzbekistan) into the composition of the reign of Kushan, whose northern boundary, probably, passed along the Gissar ridge.

In southern Tajikistan, now (in full or in part) tens of archaeological monuments of Kushan time are investigated. But on the exhibition (besides findings from the tombs of southern Tajikistan of periods of Tokhara-Yuehshih and Kushan) the predominate materials from the most interesting fortifications and the settlements (Tepai Shah, Yavan fortification and the settlement of Aktepa 2 in the Valley Beshkent) are represented in stratigraphic sense. And also the separate findings, found from the different monuments are represented. It should be also considered that the layers of Kushan time are represented also on the fortifications of Takhti Sangin and Saksanokhur, whose appearance relates to the earlier time.

Fortification of Tepai Shah was investigated in 1972 under the management of B. A. Litvinskiy. The center of the small agricultural oasis, located in the lower reaches of the River Kafirnigan, in the place of its juncture into Amu-Darya (region of Kabadian). The center section of the fortification was the well-fortified fort (80 x 80 m) with the extensive court in the center. Two periods of construction are made clear. The section of the fortress system of fortification (round tower on corner and the sections of the adjacent defensive walls) and the system of the accommodations for economic business, depository (into two rows along the defensive wall) and complexes of ceremonial accommodations with the small room-chapel, where the fragments of alabaster sculpture were found (apparently, Buddhist) were excavated. Lifetime of fortification is 2C - 3C (with the earliest versions of absolute dates of Kushan).

At 350m west from the fort the ancient cemetery of this fortification was excavated, which consisted of the ground-based tombs-Naus (excavated completely four such construction). Naus 1 and 2 - one-chamber building with Sufa along the walls (construction 1) and four-chamber Naus (construction 2) were most fully preserved. In these Naus previously were produced the burials, and skulls and bones, which perished soft tissue, with the abundant accompanying equipment (ceramics, adornment, the articles of daily life, coin, etc.)were put. The time of the functioning of ancient cemetery was from the first century BC to 5C (Litvinskiy - Sedov, 1983). It, apparently, served not only ancient cemetery of fortification itself, but also graveyard for the inhabitants of entire this small oasis for the elongation almost five centuries long.

The excavations on the Yavan fortification (Garavkala) were begun in 1963 by Y. A. Yurkevic. Then they are continued by T. I. Zeimal and E. V. Zeimal (1963 and 1965) under the management of B. A. Litvinskiy. It is located to the north from the Valley Vakhsh, in the valley of Dahanasu and Yavansu. Fortification is rectangular in the plan, with total area about 27 ha. In the southern part of the fortification the citadel raised and isolated by ditch, which consists of two hills (area of more than 8 ha, height 6 - 8 m). To the north from the fortification, beyond its limits, was located ancient cemetery (investigated in 1965 by L. T. Pyankov, in 1966 by V. S. Solovev).

Excavations made it possible to reveal the nature of the building of the citadel of the Yavan fortification in the last period of its becoming accustomed. These were separate and connected together groups of accommodations (on 3 - 5 in each group), divided by narrow bystreet or alley. The large collection of the objects of the material culture relates to the last stage of life on the fortification. : Ceramics (many entire vessels), articles made of the bone, bronze, stone, terracotta statuettes, coins, etc. (covering layer of fortification is confidently dated using all these materials by end of 4C - 5C).

Large stratigraphic excavation was led to the continent (overall depth of 10 m), there are recorded ten sequential habitable horizons, which relate to six periods. Based on materials of this excavation T. I. Zeimal elucidated the stratigraphic layer of the Kushan monuments of the Valley Vakhsh (and southern Tajikistan as a whole) - from 1C BC - 1C to 5C. Inscription on jar from the eighth stratigraphic horizon (counting from top) - the first finding of Greek inscription to the north of Amu-Darya. From other findings, a fragment of cup with the impression of die, which depicts Sasanid Kushan-king of Hurmuzd I (381 - 384) in the characteristic head-gear, has the great significance for the dating of the covering layer on the fortification.

The undefended settlement of Aktep 2, which located in the southern part of the Valley Beshkent (region of Sha artuz), in 6 km to the south from the source of Chiluchorchashma, on right bank of Amu-Dariya, is related to the very end of the period of Kushan and the period of the short-term occupation of Sasanid. On the hill of rectangular plan (sizes on base 100 x 130 m, height of approximately 7 m), excavations opened the part of the multi-room habitable complex and small sanctuary (in the Southeast of the upper area of hill). Three construction periods are revealed. On the last stage of existence of settlement two funeral pits were arranged in the ruins of sanctuary. In them previously were produced the burials, and bones, which perished soft tissue, with the abundant accompanying equipment: ceramic and bronze dishes, adornment, the implement of labour, weapon, ritual objects, a large quantity of coins (in the funeral pit No. 2 more than 100 copper coins of Sasanid Kushan-king were found). Researches on this settlement were conducted in 1972 and 1976 - 1979 by A. V. Sedov. All materials relate to the middle 4C - 5C.